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The Renin-Angiotensin-System

The Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS) is critically involved in the regulation of blood pressure and fluid balance and is responsible for the control of a variety of complex physiological functions.

The peptide hormone system is constituted by multiple enzymes, giving rise to a meshwork of effector peptides. These peptides mediate their functions through binding to specific receptors which leads to an integrated physiologic response.

The RAS can be formally divided into two branches: On the one hand there is the classical RAS, whose main effector peptide is the cardiovascular “bad guy” Angiotensin II (Ang 1-8); on the other hand there is the alternative RAS with its main effector Ang 1-7, which is known to bind the receptor MAS, transducing signals that counteract effects mediated by Ang II and thereby being beneficial in RAS-associated diseases. The balance between the two branches depends on many enzymes and serves as a common therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. Little is known about the functions of other metabolites of the RAS, although there is growing evidence for the importance of other angiotensin metabolites, enzymes and receptors of the RAS.

Learn more about Attoquant’s unique angiotensin quantification service, the RAS-FingerprintTM



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Nonn et at. Maternal Angiotensin Increases Placental Leptin in Early Gestation via an Alternative Renin-Angiotensin System Pathway: Suggesting a Link to Preeclampsia. Hypertension. 2021 May 5;77(5):1723-1736. PUBMED ID: 33775117

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Bovée et al. Renoprotective Effects of Small Interfering RNA Targeting Liver Angiotensinogen in Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease. Hypertension. 2021 May 5;77(5):1600-1612. PUBMED ID: 33719507

Vischer et al. Influence of Antihypertensive Treatment on RAAS Peptides in Newly Diagnosed Hypertensive Patients. Cells. 2021 Mar 3;10(3):534. PUBMED ID: 33802464

Carrocia et al. Aldosterone and cortisol synthesis regulation by angiotensin-(1-7) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in the human adrenal cortex. J Hypertens. 2021 Mar 1. PUBMED ID: 33657582

Reindl-Schwaighofer et al. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) Elevation in Severe COVID-19. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 Feb 18. PUBMED ID: 33600742

van Lier et al. Increased blood angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity in critically ill COVID-19 patients. ERJ Open Res. 2021 Mar 15;7(1):00848-2020. PUBMED ID: 33738305

Batchu et al. Lung and Kidney ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in Renin-Angiotensin System Blocker-Treated Comorbid Diabetic Mice Mimicking Host Factors That Have Been Linked to Severe COVID-19. Diabetes. 2021 Mar;70(3):759-771 PUBMED ID: 33310740

Kutz et al. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System peptide profiles in patients with COVID-19. Eur J Endocrinol. 2021 Feb 1;EJE-20-1445.R1 PUBMED ID: 33539316

Uijl et al. No evidence for brain renin-angiotensin system activation during DOCA-salt hypertension. Clin Sci (Lond). 2021 Jan 6;CS20201239. PUBMED ID: 33404046


Huh et al. Effect of angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 on plasma equilibrium angiotensin peptide concentrations in cats with heart disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2020 Nov 2. PUBMED ID: 33135833

Gafane-Matemane et al. Associations of central and peripheral blood pressure with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in healthy young adults: the African-PREDICT study. Hypertens Res. 2020 Oct 30. PUBMED ID: 33122821

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Kintscher et al. Plasma Angiotensin Peptide Profiling and ACE (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme)-2 Activity in COVID-19 Patients Treated With Pharmacological Blockers of the Renin-Angiotensin System. Hypertension. 2020 Nov;76(5):e34-e36. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15841. PUMBED ID: 32851897

De Souza et al. Persistent Renin-Angiotensin System Sensitization Months After Body Weight Recovery From Severe Food Restriction in Female Fischer Rats. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020 Jul 21;9(14):e017246. PUBMED ID: 32674648

Messmann et al. Alterations of the renin angiotensin system in human end-stage heart failure before and after mechanical cardiac unloading by LVAD support. Mol Cell Biochem. 2020 Jun 20. doi: 10.1007/s11010-020-03787-7 PUBMED ID: 32564294

Krenn et al. Equilibrium Angiotensin Metabolite Profiling in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Indicates Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 Jul 6. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201912-2504LE PUBMED ID: 32628511

Wang et al. Elevated Angiotensin 1-7/Angiotensin II Ratio Predicts Favorable Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure. Circ Heart Fail. 2020 Jul;13(7):e006939. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.006939. Epub 2020 Jun 25. PUBMED ID: 32580658

Shalinee et al. Dipeptidyl peptidase 3 modulates the renin-angiotensin system in mice. J Biol Chem. 2020 Jun 16;jbc.RA120.014183. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA120.014183. PUBMED ID: 32546481

Guo et al. Effects of Ramipril on the Aldosterone/Renin Ratio and the Aldosterone/Angiotensin II Ratio in Patients With Primary Aldosteronism. Hypertension. 2020 Jun 8;HYPERTENSIONAHA12014871. PUBMED ID: 32507039

Kaltenecker et al. Critical Role of Neprilysin in Kidney Angiotensin Metabolism. Circ Res. 2020 May 18. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.316151. PUBMED ID: 32418507

Urwyler et al. IL (Interleukin)-1 Receptor Antagonist Increases Ang (Angiotensin [1-7]) and Decreases Blood Pressure in Obese Individuals. Hypertension. 2020 Jun;75(6):1455-1463. PUBMED ID: 32275191

Guo et al. Measurement of Equilibrium Angiotensin II in the Diagnosis of Primary Aldosteronism. Clin Chem. 2020 Mar 1;66(3):483-492. PUBMED ID: 32068832 

Adin et al. Renin-angiotensin aldosterone profile before and after angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor administration in dogs with angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism. J Vet Intern Med. 2020 Feb 29. PUBMED ID: 32112596 


Manis et al. Relationship Between Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System and Renal Kir5.1 Channels. Clin Sci (Lond). 2019;CS20190876. 2019 Dec 4 PUBMED ID: 31799617

Potter et al. Comparison between the effects of torsemide and furosemide on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of normal dogs. J Vet Cardiol. 2019 Dec;26:51-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jvc.2019.11.003. Epub 2019 Nov 14. PUBMED ID: 31809955 

Burrello et al. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Triple-A Analysis for the Screening of Primary Aldosteronism. Hypertension HYPERTENSIONAHA11913772 2019 Nov 25 PUBMED ID: 31760886

van Rooyen et al. A Primary Aldosteronism-Like Phenotype Identified With the Aldosterone-To-Angiotensin II Ratio in Black Men. The SABPA StudyCardiovasc J Afr, 30, 1-6 2019 Nov 27. PUBMED ID: 31781716

Göppner et al. Pathogenesis of hypertension in a mouse model for human CLCN2 related hyperaldosteronism. Nat Commun. 2019 Oct 15;10(1):4678. PUBMED ID: 31615979 

El Zein et al. Retinoic acid receptor α as a novel contributor to adrenal cortex structure and function through interactions with Wnt and Vegfa signalling. Sci Rep. 2019 Oct 11;9(1):14677. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-50988-2. PUBMED ID: 31605007

Arendse et al. Novel Therapeutic Approaches Targeting the Renin-Angiotensin System and Associated Peptides in Hypertension and Heart Failure. Pharmacol Rev. 2019 Oct;71(4):539-570. doi: 10.1124/pr.118.017129. PUBMED ID: 31537750 

Kovarik et al. Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin-System Dysregulation after Kidney Transplantation. Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 5;9(1):9762. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-46114-x. PUBMED ID: 31278281

Binder et al. Angs (Angiotensins) of the Alternative Renin-Angiotensin System Predict Outcome in Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction. Hypertension. 2019 Jun 24:HYPERTENSIONAHA11912786. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.12786. PUBMED ID: 31230551

Larouche-Lebel et al. Plasma and tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity and plasma equilibrium concentrations of angiotensin peptides in dogs with heart disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2019 Jun 28. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15548. PUBMED ID: 31254308

Wang et al. Apelin protects against abdominal aortic aneurysm and the therapeutic role of neutral endopeptidase resistant apelin analogs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Jun 25;116(26):13006-13015. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1900152116. Epub 2019 Jun 12. PUBMED ID: 31189595 

Caroccia et al. Aldosterone Stimulates Its Biosynthesis Via A Novel GPER Mediated Mechanism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 May 24. pii: jc.2019-00043. doi: 10.1210/jc.2019-00043. PUBMED ID: 31125081

Wolf et al. Identifying a disease specific renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system fingerprint in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. Eur J Endocrinol. 2019 May 1. pii: EJE-19-0086.R1. doi: 10.1530/EJE-19-0086. PUBMED ID: 31075757

Uijl et al. Strong and Sustained Antihypertensive Effect of Small Interfering RNA Targeting Liver Angiotensinogen. Hypertension. 2019 Jun;73(6):1249-1257. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.12703. PUBMED ID: 31030610

Kopecky et al. Molecular regulation of the renin-angiotensin system by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2019 Apr 11. doi: 10.1007/s00125-019-4871-8. PUBMED ID: 30976852

Ames et al. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and its suppression. J Vet Intern Med. 2019 Mar;33(2):363-382. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15454. Epub 2019 Feb 26. PUBMED ID: 30806496

Ilatovskaya et al. Salt-deficient diet exacerbates cystogenesis in ARPKD via epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). EBioMedicine. 2019 Feb;40:663-674. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.01.006. Epub 2019 Feb 8. PUBMED ID: 30745171

Gatineau et al. Losartan prevents the elevation of blood pressure in adipose-PRR deficient female mice while elevated circulating sPRR activates the renin-angiotensin system. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2019 Mar 1;316(3):H506-H515. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00473.2018. Epub 2018 Dec 14. PUBMED ID: 30550352 

Blass et al. Postprandial Effects on ENaC-Mediated Sodium Absorption. Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 12;9(1):4296. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-40639-x. PUBMED ID: 30862903


Sharp et al. Renal Denervation Prevents Heart Failure Progression Via Inhibition of the Renin-Angiotensin System. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 Nov 27;72(21):2609-2621. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.08.2186. PUBMED ID: 30466519

Simko et al. Effect of Ivabradine on a Hypertensive Heart and the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in L-NAME-Induced HypertensionInt J Mol Sci. 2018 Oct 3;19(10). pii: E3017. doi: 10.3390/ijms19103017. PUBMED ID:  30282928 

Simko et al. Effect of Melatonin on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in l-NAME-Induced Hypertension. Molecules. 2018 Jan 29;23(2). pii: E265. doi: 10.3390/molecules23020265. PUBMED ID: 29382124

Guo et al. Aldosterone LC-MS/MS Assay-Specific Threshold Values in Screening and Confirmatory Testing for Primary Aldosteronism.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Nov 1;103(11):3965-3973. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-01041. PUBMED ID: 30137438

Bennion et al. Protective effects of the angiotensin II AT2 receptor agonist compound 21 in ischemic stroke: a nose-to-brain delivery approach. Clin Sci (Lond). 2018 Mar 15;132(5):581-593. doi: 10.1042/CS20180100. Print 2018 Mar 15. PUBMED ID:  29500223


Stowasser et al. Can Screening and Confirmatory Testing in the Management of Patients with Primary Aldosteronism be Improved? Horm Metab Res. 2017 Dec;49(12):915-921. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-121468. Epub 2017 Nov 13. PUBMED ID: 29132172

Pavo et al. Low- and High-renin Heart Failure Phenotypes with Clinical Implications. Clin Chem. 2017 Nov 14. pii: clinchem.2017.278705. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2017.278705. PUBMED ID: 29138270

Xu et al. Clinical Relevance and Role of Neuronal AT1 Receptors in ADAM17-Mediated ACE2 Shedding in Neurogenic Hypertension. Circ Res. 2017 May 16. pii: CIRCRESAHA.116.310509. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.310509. PUBMED ID: 28512108

Carrocia et al. Urotensin II Exerts Pressor Effects By Stimulating Renin And Aldosterone Synthase Gene Expression. Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 24;7(1):13876. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-12613-y. PUBMED ID: 29066763

Antlanger et al. Molecular remodeling of the renin-angiotensin system after kidney transplantation. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2017 Apr-Jun;18(2):1470320317705232. doi: 10.1177/1470320317705232. PUBMED ID: 28490223

van Thiel et al. Brain Renin-Angiotensin System: Does It Exist? Hypertension. 2017 Apr 10. pii: HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.08922. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.08922. PUBMED ID: 28396529

Antlanger et al. Effects of Direct Renin Inhibition versus Angiotensin II Receptor Blockade on Angiotensin Profiles in Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease. Ann Med. 2017 Mar 30:1-24. doi: 10.1080/07853890.2017.1313447. PUBMED ID: 28358246

Reichhart et al. Hypertensive retinopathy in a transgenic angiotensin-based model. Clin Sci (Lond). 2016 Jul 1;130(13):1075-88. doi: 10.1042/CS20160092. PUBMED ID: 27026533

Motta-Santos et al. Effects of ACE2 deficiency on physical performance and physiological adaptations of cardiac and skeletal muscle to exercise. Hypertens Res. 2016 Jul;39(7):506-12. doi: 10.1038/hr.2016.28. PUBMED ID: 27053009

Basu R et al. Roles of Angiotensin Peptides and Recombinant Human ACE2 in Heart Failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Feb 21;69(7):805-819. 
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Pavo N et al. Renin-Angiotensin System Fingerprints of Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Dec 27;68(25):2912-2914.
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van Rooyen JM et al. Quantification of systemic renin-angiotensin system peptides of hypertensive black and white African men established from the RAS-Fingerprint®. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2016 Oct 12;17(4)
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Poglitsch et al. Letter to the editor: Angiotensin quantification by mass spectrometry. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016 Feb 1;310(3):H452-3. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00933.2015. PUBMED ID: 26830339

Domenig O et al. Neprilysin is a Mediator of Alternative Renin-Angiotensin-System Activation in the Murine and Human Kidney. Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 21;6:33678.
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Kovarik JJ et al. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy on the regulation of plasma and cardiac tissue renin-angiotensin system in heart transplant patients. J of Heat and Lung Transplantation. Published online 2016 Sep 09.
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Sabharwal R et al. Angiotensin-dependent autonomic dysregulation precedes dilated cardiomyopathy in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy. Exp Physiol. 2015 Jul 1;100(7):776-95.
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Roksnoer LC et al. Optimum AT1 receptor-neprilysin inhibition has superior cardioprotective effects compared with AT1 receptor blockade alone in hypertensive rats. Kidney Int. 2015 Jul;88(1):109-20.
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Wysocki J et al. Plasma and Kidney Angiotensin Peptides: Importance of the Aminopeptidase A/Angiotensin III Axis. Am J Hypertens. 2015 Dec; 28(12):1418-26.
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Sharp S et al. Pharmacodynamic effects of C-domain-specific ACE inhibitors on the renin-angiotensin system in myocardial infarcted rats. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2015 Mar 9.
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Kovarik JJ et al. Molecular regulation of the renin-angiotensin system in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2015 Jan;30(1):115-23.
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Andersen LB et al. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Jan 28;4(2).
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Manzel A et al. Angiotensin IV is induced in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis but fails to influence the disease. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2014 Sep;9(4):533-43.
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Haber PK et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-independent action of presumed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activators: studies in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro. Hypertension. 2014 Apr;63(4):774-82.
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Haschke M et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in healthy human subjects. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2013 Sep;52(9):783-92.
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Poglitsch M et al. Recombinant Expression and Characterization of Human and Murine ACE2: Species-Specific Activation of the Alternative Renin-Angiotensin-System. Int J Hypertens. 2012;2012:428950.
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Ye M et al. Murine recombinant angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: effect on angiotensin II-dependent hypertension and distinctive angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibitor characteristics on rodent and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Hypertension. 2012 Sep;60(3):730-40.
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Since we started research in the field of the Renin-Angiotensin- System, we have presented various posters at numerous international conferences. Check out and download our selection of posters to dive into detail!

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