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The Renin-Angiotensin-System

The Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS) is critically involved in the regulation of blood pressure and fluid balance and is responsible for the control of a variety of complex physiological functions.

The peptide hormone system is constituted by multiple enzymes, giving rise to a meshwork of effector peptides. These peptides mediate their functions through binding to specific receptors which leads to an integrated physiologic response.

The RAS can be formally divided into two branches: On the one hand there is the classical RAS, whose main effector peptide is the cardiovascular “bad guy” Angiotensin II (Ang 1-8); on the other hand there is the alternative RAS with its main effector Ang 1-7, which is known to bind the receptor MAS, transducing signals that counteract effects mediated by Ang II and thereby being beneficial in RAS-associated diseases. The balance between the two branches depends on many enzymes and serves as a common therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. Little is known about the functions of other metabolites of the RAS, although there is growing evidence for the importance of other angiotensin metabolites, enzymes and receptors of the RAS.

Learn more about Attoquant’s unique angiotensin quantification service, the RAS-FingerprintTM

Publications

2017

Xu et al. Clinical Relevance and Role of Neuronal AT1 Receptors in ADAM17-Mediated ACE2 Shedding in Neurogenic Hypertension. Circ Res. 2017 May 16. pii: CIRCRESAHA.116.310509. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.310509. PUBMED ID: 28512108

Antlanger et al. Molecular remodeling of the renin-angiotensin system after kidney transplantation. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2017 Apr-Jun;18(2):1470320317705232. doi: 10.1177/1470320317705232. PUBMED ID: 28490223

van Thiel et al. Brain Renin-Angiotensin System: Does It Exist? Hypertension. 2017 Apr 10. pii: HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.08922. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.08922. PUBMED ID: 28396529

Antlanger et al. Effects of Direct Renin Inhibition versus Angiotensin II Receptor Blockade on Angiotensin Profiles in Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease. Ann Med. 2017 Mar 30:1-24. doi: 10.1080/07853890.2017.1313447. PUBMED ID: 28358246

Reichhart et al. Hypertensive retinopathy in a transgenic angiotensin-based model. Clin Sci (Lond). 2016 Jul 1;130(13):1075-88. doi: 10.1042/CS20160092. PUBMED ID: 27026533

Motta-Santos et al. Effects of ACE2 deficiency on physical performance and physiological adaptations of cardiac and skeletal muscle to exercise. Hypertens Res. 2016 Jul;39(7):506-12. doi: 10.1038/hr.2016.28. PUBMED ID: 27053009

Basu R et al. Roles of Angiotensin Peptides and Recombinant Human ACE2 in Heart Failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Feb 21;69(7):805-819. 
DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.11.064. PUBMED ID: 28209222

2016

Pavo N et al. Renin-Angiotensin System Fingerprints of Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Dec 27;68(25):2912-2914.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.10.017. PUBMED ID: 28007153

van Rooyen JM et al. Quantification of systemic renin-angiotensin system peptides of hypertensive black and white African men established from the RAS-Fingerprint®. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2016 Oct 12;17(4)
DOI: 10.1177/1470320316669880. PUBMED ID: 27737932

Poglitsch et al. Letter to the editor: Angiotensin quantification by mass spectrometry. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016 Feb 1;310(3):H452-3. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00933.2015. PUBMED ID: 26830339

Domenig O et al. Neprilysin is a Mediator of Alternative Renin-Angiotensin-System Activation in the Murine and Human Kidney. Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 21;6:33678.
DOI: 10.1038/srep33678. PUBMED ID: 27649628

Kovarik JJ et al. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy on the regulation of plasma and cardiac tissue renin-angiotensin system in heart transplant patients. J of Heat and Lung Transplantation. Published online 2016 Sep 09.
DOI: j.healun.2016.08.022.

2015

Sabharwal R et al. Angiotensin-dependent autonomic dysregulation precedes dilated cardiomyopathy in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy. Exp Physiol. 2015 Jul 1;100(7):776-95.
DOI: 10.1113/EP085066. PUBMED ID: 25921929

Roksnoer LC et al. Optimum AT1 receptor-neprilysin inhibition has superior cardioprotective effects compared with AT1 receptor blockade alone in hypertensive rats. Kidney Int. 2015 Jul;88(1):109-20.
DOI: 10.1038/ki.2015.107. Epub 2015 Apr 1. PUBMED ID: 25830765

Wysocki J et al. Plasma and Kidney Angiotensin Peptides: Importance of the Aminopeptidase A/Angiotensin III Axis. Am J Hypertens. 2015 Dec; 28(12):1418-26.
DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpv054. Epub 2015 May 11. PUBMED ID: 25968123

Sharp S et al. Pharmacodynamic effects of C-domain-specific ACE inhibitors on the renin-angiotensin system in myocardial infarcted rats. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2015 Mar 9.
pii: 1470320314568438. PUBMED ID: 25757657

Kovarik JJ et al. Molecular regulation of the renin-angiotensin system in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2015 Jan;30(1):115-23.
DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfu265; PUBMED ID: 25107336

Andersen LB et al. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Jan 28;4(2).
DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.114.001417; PUBMED ID: 25630909

2014

Manzel A et al. Angiotensin IV is induced in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis but fails to influence the disease. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2014 Sep;9(4):533-43.
DOI: 10.1007/s11481-014-9548-y; PUBMED ID: 24854706

Burger D et al. Effects of a domain-selective ACE inhibitor in a mouse model of chronic angiotensin II-dependent hypertension. Clin Sci (Lond). 2014 Jul;127(1):57-63.
DOI: 10.1042/CS20130808. PUBMED ID: 24506807

Haber PK et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-independent action of presumed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activators: studies in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro. Hypertension. 2014 Apr;63(4):774-82.
DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.02856. Epub 2014 Jan 20. PUBMED ID: 24446061

2013

Haschke M et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in healthy human subjects. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2013 Sep;52(9):783-92.
DOI: 10.1007/s40262-013-0072-7; PUBMED ID: 23681967

Nikolaou A et al. [3H]IVDE77, a novel radioligand with high affinity and selectivity for the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013 Feb 28;702(1-3):93-102.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.01.026. Epub 2013 Jan 31. PUBMED ID: 23376157

2012

Poglitsch M et al. Recombinant Expression and Characterization of Human and Murine ACE2: Species-Specific Activation of the Alternative Renin-Angiotensin-System. Int J Hypertens. 2012;2012:428950.
DOI: 10.1155/2012/428950; PUBMED ID: 22518284

Ye M et al. Murine recombinant angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: effect on angiotensin II-dependent hypertension and distinctive angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibitor characteristics on rodent and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Hypertension. 2012 Sep;60(3):730-40.
DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.112.198622; PUBMED ID: 22777933

Posters

Since we started research in the field of the Renin-Angiotensin- System, we have presented various posters at numerous international conferences. Check out and download our selection of posters to dive into detail!